After perfunctory work in an insurance office and on the editorial staff of Simplicissimus, a satirical weekly, he devoted himself to writing, as his elder brother Heinrich had already done. His early tales, collected as Der kleine Herr Friedemannreflect the aestheticism of the s but are given depth by the influence of the philosophers Schopenhauer and Nietzsche and the composer Wagnerto all of whom Mann was always to acknowledge a deep, if ambiguousdebt.
In fact, Mann, like Goethe, contends that it is the duty of the true artist to Thomas mann essays closely the phenomena of life. Only in this manner can he overcome the false dichotomies of art-science and spirit-life which, in the case of Mann, he had failed victim to the spell of Nietzsche and Schopenhauer.
This is why both Wilhelm Meister and Hans Castorp study medicine. The more deeply they penetrate into the mysteries of nature, the more they understand life and humanity. This understanding becomes the basis for their compassion for life.
In The Magic Mountain, Mann celebrates art as a humanistic discipline; and, a decade later, he advanced far enough along the path toward synthesis between art and life to proclaim, "Life wants to be taken seriously — so does art.
So was Thomas Mann. He not only questioned the meaningfulness of radicalism, but for a long time also he questioned traditional Western democracy with its inevitable basis of expansive capitalism. Yet Mann remained Thomas mann essays much aware of the serious problems facing the democratic ideal, in which he never ceased to detect a built-in tendency toward anarchy.
Their motto was "Seek to help wherever you go, for everywhere is your home. This is true for the political realm as much as any other one.
In this connection, it is important to note that Castorp never really embraces anybody or anything completely, though, literally speaking, heaven and hell are summoned to aid in his education. He manages to maintain distance. The concept of the "communal bond" emerges. In Faust, the protagonist seeks salvation by contributing physically to the improvement of the world; in Wilhelm Meister, America stands as the dawn of the age of communal responsibility and happiness for those willing to share in its realization; and in The Magic Mountain, Castorp, partly because he wants to and partly because there is no alternative, becomes the sacrifice indispensable for the rebirth of a hopefully saner civilization.
Richard Wagner From his earliest days, Mann was exposed to music, especially that of the Romantics, at his home. The story does not move from a beginning to an end but surges and subsides in a vacuum of timelessness.
Count Leo Tolstoyhowever, next to Wagner, was the main source of his artistic maturation. From Tolstoy, Mann acquired his early predilection for sweeping epics, and from him he learned the device of an almost painful observation of even the most minute details.
Another artistic device is that of the leitmotif which Wagner, and in the literary realm, Thomas Mann expanded to include the symbolic. Tolstoy successfully integrated autobiographical elements into his writing. Mann was to follow him in this respect, magnificently weaving his doubts and agonies into the structure of The Magic Mountain through Castorp, his personification.
Human beings may deceive themselves into thinking that they are acting from considerations dictated by reason alone, but this is never true. The function of the intellect is only to assist the will to achieve its ends. Since the will is "blind," all participation in life is to be avoided.
The death-wish not suicide therefore assumes central proportion in this philosophy, for it terminates the journey of tragic delusions which is life. The importance Schopenhauer assigns to artistic experience is understandable in the light of these views.
It is he who deliberately spends life in "contemplation" rather than in practical action who comes closest to the ideal of total noninvolvement. What Mann learned from Schopenhaner was that artistic sensitivity and intellect can only grow at the expense of vitality and vice versa.
Whereas Schopenhauer preached the renunciation of this vitality, however, Mann was not so pessimistic and contented himself with presenting this dualism. Beginning in The Magic Mountain, he tried to transcend it and became cautiously optimistic.
In terms of his political attitudes, this meant that he eventually overcame the ideal of aloofness from political and social concerns. Only a purely esthetic view of life as opposed to moral can compensate for the fact that life is but a recurring show of images.
Hence, he revolts against all notions of truth and morality, attacking not only religion but also reason.
So far he is in total agreement with Schopenhauer.His Essays of Three Decades discusses philosophy's influence on literature. Highlights of Mann criticism include Essays on Thomas Mann by Georg Lukacs and The Ironic German by Erich Heller. Useful. The Death of the Moth. Moths that fly by day are not properly to be called moths; they do not excite that pleasant sense of dark autumn nights and ivy-blossom which the commonest yellow-underwing asleep in the shadow of the curtain never fails to rouse in us.
Essays and criticism on Thomas Mann - Critical Essays. Thomas Mann was born in in Germany. He was only twenty-five when his first novel, Buddenbrooks, was metin2sell.com The Magic Mountain was published, and, five years later, Mann was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature.
Following the rise of the Nazis to power, he left Germany for good in to live in Switzerland and then in California, where he wrote Doctor Faustus (first. Free thomas mann papers, essays, and research papers. J. L. BELL is a Massachusetts writer who specializes in (among other things) the start of the American Revolution in and around Boston.
He is particularly interested in the experiences of children in He has published scholarly papers and popular articles for both children and adults.