Preparation[ edit ] The actual day-to-day records of scientific information are kept in research notebooks or logbooks.
Kingdom Animalia In the Whittaker system, Plantae included some algae.
In other systems, such as Lynn Margulis 's system of five kingdoms—animals, plants, bacteria prokaryotesfungi, and protoctists—the plants included just the land plants Embryophyta. Despite the development from two kingdoms to five among most scientists, some authors as late as continued to employ a traditional two-kingdom system of animals and plants, dividing the plant kingdom into Subkingdoms Prokaryota bacteria and cyanophytesMycota fungi and supposed relativesand Chlorota algae and land plants.
ArchaebacteriaChromistaand Archezoa Thomas Cavalier-Smith thought at first, as Placement papers of pipal research almost the consensus at that time, that the difference between eubacteria and archaebacteria was so great particularly considering the genetic distance of ribosomal genes that they needed to be separated into two different kingdoms, hence splitting the empire Bacteria into two kingdoms.
He then divided Eubacteria into two subkingdoms: Negibacteria Gram negative bacteria and Posibacteria Gram positive bacteria.
Technological advances in electron microscopy allowed the separation of the Chromista from the Plantae kingdom. Indeed, the chloroplast of the chromists is located in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum instead of in the cytosol.
Moreover, only chromists contain chlorophyll c. Since then, many non-photosynthetic phyla of protists, thought to have secondarily lost their chloroplasts, were integrated into the kingdom Chromista. Finally, some protists lacking mitochondria were discovered.
As a result, these amitochondriate protists were separated from the protist kingdom, giving rise to the, at the same time, superkingdom and kingdom Archezoa. This was known as the Archezoa hypothesis.
This superkingdom was opposed to the Metakaryota superkingdom, grouping together the five other eukaryotic kingdoms AnimaliaProtozoaFungiPlantae and Chromista.
Six kingdoms[ edit ] InCavalier-Smith published a six-kingdom model,  which has been revised in subsequent papers.
The version published in is shown below. The two subkingdoms Unibacteria and Negibacteria of kingdom Bacteria sole kingdom of empire Prokaryota are distinguished according to their membrane topologies.
The bimembranous-unimembranous transition is thought to be far more fundamental than the long branch of genetic distance of Archaebacteriaviewed as having no particular biological significance.
Cavalier-Smith does not accept the requirement for taxa to be monophyletic "holophyletic" in his terminology to be valid. He defines Prokaryota, Bacteria, Negibacteria, Unibacteria, and Posibacteria as valid paraphyla therefore "monophyletic" in the sense he uses this term taxa, marking important innovations of biological significance in regard of the concept of biological niche.
In the same way, his paraphyletic kingdom Protozoa includes the ancestors of Animalia, Fungi, Plantae, and Chromista. The advances of phylogenetic studies allowed Cavalier-Smith to realize that all the phyla thought to be archezoans i.
This means that all living eukaryotes are in fact metakaryotesaccording to the significance of the term given by Cavalier-Smith.
Some of the members of the defunct kingdom Archezoalike the phylum Microsporidiawere reclassified into kingdom Fungi. Others were reclassified in kingdom Protozoa like Metamonada which is now part of infrakingdom Excavata.Indus Script.
The term Indus script (also Harappan script) refers to short strings of symbols associated with the Indus Valley Civilization, in use during the Mature Harappan period, between the .
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