Parthenogenesis research paper

Sex should not exist; natural selection will favor asexual reproduction. The solution to the paradox is almost the Holy Grail of a large theoretical sub-branch of evolutionary biology, but it still has not been satisfactorily tracked down. There are many modern bacteria that look very similar to fossils of the earliest bacteria of over 3 billion years ago. Eukaryotes are much better at evolving than prokaryotes.

Parthenogenesis research paper

Riddle of the Mystery Grape Solved - Trail VistasTrail Vistas

So what did I find? I literally delved deeper into the mystery by ripping open the green sphere to reveal an even more mysterious center mass resembling a white sea urchin. The central mass had tendrils which reached out through hollow space and clung to the bright green soft outer shell.

It looked alien, like something from a science fiction movie that, if left unchecked, would grow into a pod-person. So I researched seed pods and seeds, sorting through a variety of identification charts only to come up short.

Nothing was green and speckled with an urchin-like center. I browsed through countless pictures of seed pods until I found one that looked very similar to what I had held in my hand. A gall is an abnormal outgrowth of plant tissue caused by parasites. Basically a tiny little gall wasp lays an egg in the stem of an oak leaf and then the tree has a reaction that causes the leaf to grow a tumor-like structure which encapsulates and nourishes the wasp egg.

Within the center of the urchin-like mass the egg grows into a larvae, metamorphosizes into an adult gall wasp and then the adult wasp eats its way out of the protective skin of the gall. Biologists have yet to identify the means by which the gall is formed, current theories include chemical, mechanical and viral triggers.

In fact, the Gall Wasp is of such a peculiar nature that renowned entomologist and sexologist Dr. Alfred Kinsey spent the first half of his research career focusing on Cynipidae gall wasps.

While there are both male and female gall wasps, some females can reproduce asexually, this is called parthenogenesis.

The single wasp that emerges from a large Oak Apple will be parthenogenetic i.

Parthenogenesis research paper

The egg in the bud will generally develop into a little gall that is much smaller and less noticeable than an Oak Apple. When this little gall fully develops, a male or female wasp will exit and seek a mate.

Once fertilized, the sexual female will seek out an oak leaf stem and implant an egg which in turn develops into a large Oak Apple. This is the reproductive cycle for the majority of Gall Wasp types.

As noted above, not all galls created by Gall Wasps are Oak Apples. In fact nearly every different type of Gall Wasp creates a uniquely identifiable gall.

The structure and composition of a gall is amenable to any number of parasitic or inquiline species. A parasite will take over the gall to the detriment of the Gall Wasp while an inquiline will live along with the Gall Wasp without harming it.

Galls are almost equally likely to give rise to the native gall wasp, its parasite or its inquiline. The often succulent and nourishing nature of galls also attracts predators like woodpeckers which savor the grubs found within.

Komodo dragon - Wikipedia

Another gall predator is man. Iron gall ink was preferred because it adhered very well to parchment and vellum which were the predominant writing materials of the time.

Parthenogenesis research paper

Maybe that is why so many people were unable to solve the riddle of the Mystery Grape. This entry was posted in Trail Tales by VistaMaster. I found one of these this morning. Your site was the first I found after quite a search that let me ID the thing.Parthenogenesis. Parthenogenesis can be defined as the production of an embryo from a female gamete without any genetic contribution from a male gamete, .

Full text Full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version. Get a printable copy (PDF file) of the complete article (M), or click on a page image below to browse page by page.

Links to PubMed are also available for Selected References. Born 16 Feb ; died 10 Feb at age German anthropologist was a Roman Catholic priest whose research focussed on the origin of the idea of God and religion within various cultures, trying to link what emerged from ethnological studies with what is stated in the Bible.

Schmidt proposed theories on the effect of environment in the evolution of families. Cyclic parthenogenesis, in which parthenogenesis and sexual reproduction alternate, is common in most Daphnia species, but lineages have been described that exclusively reproduce asexually (obligate parthenogenesis).

"I think this is an extremely important—and solid—paper," says stem cell researcher Robert Lanza, vice president of research and scientific development at Applied Cell Technology, a. flu-like illness, allergies, infections, neurological and muscular symptoms.

Note: The returning Gulf War troops also are producing a tremendous increase in birth defects in their subsequent children.

Hwang Woo-suk - Wikipedia