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Mertongenerally considered one of the seminal authors in the sociology of science. Merton's was a kind of "sociology of scientists," which left the cognitive content of science out of sociological account; SSK by contrast aimed at providing sociological explanations of scientific ideas themselves, taking its lead from aspects of the work of Thomas S.
Kuhn, but especially from established traditions in cultural anthropology Durkheim, Mauss as well as the later Wittgenstein. David Bloorone of SSK's early champions, has contrasted the so-called 'weak programme' or 'program' — either spelling is used which merely gives social explanations for erroneous beliefs, with what he called the ' strong programme ', which considers sociological factors as influencing all beliefs.
The weak programme is more of a description of an approach than an organised movement.
The term is applied to historians, sociologists and philosophers of science who merely cite sociological factors as being responsible for those beliefs that went wrong. Imre Lakatos and in some moods Thomas Kuhn might be said to adhere to it.
The strong programme is particularly associated with the work of two groups: Also associated with SSK in the s was discourse analysis as applied to science associated with Michael Mulkay at the University of Yorkas well as a concern with issues of reflexivity arising from paradoxes relating to SSK's relativist stance towards science and the status of its own knowledge-claims Steve Woolgar, Malcolm Ashmore.
It has made major contributions in recent years to a critical analysis of the biosciences and informatics.
The sociology of mathematical knowledge[ edit ] Studies of mathematical practice and quasi-empiricism in mathematics are also rightly part of the sociology of knowledge, since they focus on the community of those who practice mathematics and their common assumptions.
Since Eugene Wigner raised the issue in and Hilary Putnam made it more rigorous inthe question of why fields such as physics and mathematics should agree so well has been debated. Proposed solutions point out that the fundamental constituents of mathematical thought, space, form-structure, and number-proportion are also the fundamental constituents of physics.
It is also worthwhile to note that physics is nothing but a modeling of reality, and seeing causal relationships governing repeatable observed phenomena, and much of mathematics, especially in relation to the growth of the calculushas been developed precisely for the goal of developing these models in a rigorous fashion.
Another approach is to suggest that there is no deep problem, that the division of human scientific thinking through using words such as 'mathematics' and 'physics' is only useful in their practical everyday function to categorize and distinguish.
Fundamental contributions to the sociology of mathematical knowledge have been made by Sal Restivo and David Bloor. Restivo draws upon the work of scholars such as Oswald Spengler The Decline of the West,Raymond Louis Wilder and Leslie Alvin Whiteas well as contemporary sociologists of knowledge and science studies scholars.
David Bloor draws upon Ludwig Wittgenstein and other contemporary thinkers. They both claim that mathematical knowledge is socially constructed and has irreducible contingent and historical factors woven into it. More recently Paul Ernest has proposed a social constructivist account of mathematical knowledge, drawing on the works of both of these sociologists.
These theorists criticise SSK for sociological reductionism and a human centered universe. SSK, they say, relies too heavily on human actors and social rules and conventions settling scientific controversies.
The debate is discussed in an article Epistemological Chicken.Choose the Right Synonym for knowledge. knowledge, learning, erudition, scholarship mean what is or can be known by an individual or by humankind.
knowledge applies to facts or ideas acquired by study, investigation, observation, or experience. rich in the knowledge of human nature learning applies to knowledge acquired especially through formal, often advanced, schooling. Sigma Marketplace is the source nurses trust for the knowledge they need to help patients, staff, colleagues and themselves!
Improve your nursing practice with products from Sigma! Northumbria University offer a specially developed Adult Nursing course to equip students with the knowledge to care for adults.
Learn more here. Defining nursing knowledge. Hall A(1). Author information: (1)Swansea University. The question of what constitutes nursing knowledge is a vital one for nurses to consider for a number of reasons. Defining nursing knowledge. Hall A(1). Author information: (1)Swansea University.
The question of what constitutes nursing knowledge is a vital one for nurses to consider for a number of reasons. Nurses use a wide range of knowledge in practice, some theoretical and some practical, so identifying what nursing knowledge is should be central to.
How wonderful it would be if INS made the Standards of Practice available to everyone free online. I understand there are costs involved with operating a corporation, and obviously printed copies would continue to be purchased.