History[ edit ] Hans Eysenckauthor of "The effects of psychotherapy: Wachtel, Abraham MaslowArnold P. Goldstein, Anthony Ryleand others.
Knowledge development in the discipline of nursing has generated and continues to generate philosophical, theoretical, and scientific knowledge, which serve as a basis for further reflections, investigations, and refinement, and as a source of new Factor isolating theory.
In addition, nursing theory development has been related to borrowed or shared theories from or with other disciplines such as anthropology, education, sociology, and psychology. In this period, the emphasis was placed on the integration of theories from other disciplines into the discipline of nursing, on the analyses of nursing practice in search of a theoretical framework, and on the development of a conceptual framework that could serve as a foundation for theory development Newman, Consequently, nursing literature is replete with suggestions that nursing theories must be congruent with a broad perspective of the discipline of nursing to be considered acceptable nursing theories.
To view a nursing theory from a broad perspective means to take into consideration consensus on the four domain concepts of Factor isolating theory to the discipline of nursing which represent the nursing metaparadigm: These interrelationships are described by scholars in terms of the focus given by the discipline of nursing.
Thus, a theory is a coherent set of propositions and statements that describe factor-isolatingexplain factor-relatingand predict situation-relating phenomena as well as prescribe situation-producing actions toward goals. According to Barnumtheories may be classified as descriptive or exploratory.
Descriptive theories observe a phenomenon and identify its elements or events.
Meleis stated that theories are composed of concepts connected to the phenomena of concern to a discipline. These concepts relate to each other in order to comprise theoretical statements.
The objective of theory is to formulate a minimum set of generalizations that allow a discipline to explain a maximum number of observable relationships among variables. This view is congruent with Dickoff et al.
Nursing Theory Development Nursing theories are very important for guiding education, research, and practice as well as for strengthening the links among those areas. Nursing theories are necessary and very important for the discipline of nursing; they define the body of nursing knowledge, promote further knowledge development, establish nursing as a profession, and aim to give directions to nursing practice.
Additionally, Meleis stated that nursing theory provides insights about nursing practice situations and research and gives direction to nursing practice. Nursing theories are normally derived from conceptual models in which the nursing metaparadigm phenomena are clearly identified Fawcett, For this reason, the conceptual model is considered a precursor of nursing theory Peterson, ; Fawcet A conceptual model of nursing is a set of abstract concepts and propositions that are integrated into a meaningful configuration and represent an involvement in theoretical formulations by describing nursing phenomena and their interrelationships in abstract terms Fawcett, Consequently, it is implied that the concepts, definitions, and propositions of a nursing theory are derived from a nursing conceptual model.
Nursing theories vary in scope; that is, they vary in the level of abstraction.
Theories that are broader in scope are called grand range theories. Thus, they can easily be taken to the operational level Wilson, ; they are theories that describe, explain, and predict phenomena of concern to nursing as well as prescribe actions in response to those phenomena.
Both grand and middle range theories are important for knowledge development in the discipline of nursing. Grand range theories are important to provide a larger picture of the phenomena. However, a deeper understanding about the relationships among those phenomena is provided by middle range theories.
Thus, the discipline of nursing should concentrate its efforts in developing more middle range theories, which are able to direct research and practice as well as to strengthen the linkage among those areas theory, research, and practice.
Speedy supported this view. She noted that the majority of nursing scholars have suggested that theories guide practice, that practice is a source of theory development, and that theories and practice inform each other.
In addition, specialized knowledge defines the particular competence of a group, establishes a legitimate basis for the authority of the group, provides status and prestige, and facilitates the socialization of new members into the group Carper, Theorists have classified knowledge development in different ways.
According to Johnsonknowledge development consists of knowledge of order describing and explaining the relations of physical, biological, and social objects and events — this order can be discovered and understood ; knowledge of disorder providing information to understand the events that pose a threat to well-being or survival of the individual or society, or which are deemed undesirable for some other reason ; and knowledge of control facilitating a prescriptive course of action, which when executed, changes the sequence of events in a preferred way and toward desired outcomes.
Schultz and Meleis asserted that the discipline of nursing uses three types of knowledge: Knowledge development in the discipline of nursing involves using all these types of knowledge in order to describe, explain, predict, and control nursing situations.Jan 31, · Practice Theory traces the outline for practice.
Objectives are set and actions are set to meet the objectives. Four steps in the development of practice theories are: Factor isolating; factor relating, situation relating, and; situation producing control.
Theory is a systematic way of explaining and organizing information about a phenomena. It is a way we can explain the world around us. It is a way we can group ideas, synthesize the information and form new ideas. "A theoretical framework is a frame of reference that is a basis for observations, definitions of concepts, research designs, interpretations, and generalizations, much as the frame that rests on a foundation defines the overall design of a house (LoBiondo-Wood & Haber, , p.
). Thus, a theory is a coherent set of propositions and statements that describe (factor-isolating), explain (factor-relating), and predict (situation-relating) phenomena as well as prescribe (situation-producing) actions toward goals.
This paper is an analysis of a number of articles on nursing by lames Dickoff and Patricia James. The analysis includes their speech given at the Nurse Educators Conference in A.
Explain/describe the 4 phases of theorizing: 1. Factor-isolating theory – This first phase of development can be further subdivided into two major activities: first is naming or labeling, second is the classifying or categorizing.