Why and How to Let Students Decide By Alfie Kohn The essence of the demand for freedom is the need of conditions which will enable an individual to make his own special contribution to a group interest, and to partake of its activities in such ways that social guidance shall be a matter of his own mental attitude, and not a mere authoritative dictation of his acts. But what if, hypothetically speaking, this syndrome also affected students? Teachers around the country to whom I have put this question immediately suggest such symptoms as disengagement and apathy — or, conversely, thoughtlessness and aggression.
Finally, the evidence presented within the essay is synthesised and conclusions made. In particular, it is concluded that despite the moral and ethical implications of these studies, there is a clear need to learn about obedience to authority.
Not only can classical experiments such as those conducted by Milgram assist in understanding human behaviour, but they can also assist in a number of environmental contexts, including schools and the military.
Finally, the evidence presented within the essay will be synthesised and conclusions made.
The study involved deceiving participants into thinking they were giving electric shocks to another participant in an adjacent room. No shocks were actually delivered and the learner was an actor.
The experimenter, wearing a white laboratory coat to exert authority, was in the same room as the participant or teacher and prompted them to continue delivering shocks despite any pleas from the learner. These pleas started at v. Of particular note is that the participant met the learner before the experiment and saw him being strapped into the chair where the shocks would be delivered to him.
The teacher also heard the learner complain of a bad heart. Even in variations of this study, an overwhelming majority of teachers continued administering shocks after they thought the student may be injured or unconscious. Indeed, Burger claims to have replicated the study in all ways except for study duration.
Thus, Burger proposed that stopping the experiment at v would still provide insight into how likely people were to go on to v should this have been expected of them.
In replicating the confederate condition, Burger predicted that this would have an effect on obedience levels, but this was not found to be the case. In fact, this variation in the experiment had no effect on obedience levels.
This was a markedly different result to that recorded by Milgram, who found that 7. This is a significant weakness considering the wealth of evidence demonstrating the role of conformity on attitudes and behaviours Hogg and Vaughan, Even though the Milgram obedience study is considered unethical and not a good representation of obedience Banyard,many consider his study to be a true and uninhibited study of obedience.
Indeed, his findings demonstrate that if an individual in a position of power guides another individual to commit an unethical act, the person being guided is capable of behaving in ways they would not otherwise contemplate.
This has profound implications in the military, among many other contexts. Berkowitz and LePage demonstrated in a study comprising students who were given electric shocks as task feedback, that more shocks were associated with more anger.
In turn, angered participants gave more shocks and the aggressive cue of a gun increased the number of shocks students were willing to give.
This highlights the potentially dangerous outcomes inherent within obedience to authority, providing the rationale for understanding this phenomenon as much as research allows.
Conclusion In conclusion, this critique has provided insight into a classical experiment from the history of psychology, as conducted by Milgram and later replicated by Burger. Not only can classical experiments such as those conducted by Milgram assist in understanding human behaviour, but the can also assist in a number of environmental contexts, including schools and the military.
Weapons as aggression-eliciting stimuli. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7, Would people still obey today? American Psychologist, 64, Social psychology 6th ed.
Understanding How Young Children Learn. by Wendy L. Ostroff. Table of Contents. Chapter 1. Understanding Children's Motivation. mo·ti·va·tion is the driving desire behind all action and is the precursor and cornerstone to learning. It is no exaggeration to say that children have boundless energy for living and learning. Published: Mon, 5 Dec Milgram Summary. In the early ’s, Yale university psychologist Stanley Milgram published” The Perils of Obedience,” in which he reported the result of a series of social psychology experiments he conducted to test the various individuals’ levels of obedience to authority. The Project Gutenberg EBook of Moby Dick; or The Whale, by Herman Melville This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever.
Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, Deliberating Experiments on Obedience Essay Words | 5 Pages. In Stanley Milgram, a Yale psychologist, created an experiment examining obedience.
Diana Baumrind's "Review of Stanley Milgram's Experiments on Obedience" says that Milgram "entrapped" () his subjects and potentionally harmed his subjects mentally.
Both authors are obviously concerned with ethics and validity but both see them in a very different light, which is apparent in their writings.4/4(1).
ILLIAM DONALDSON has led a full life. He was most notably a co-founder of the investment banking firm of Donaldson, Lufkin & Jenrette in , served in Henry Kissinger’s State Department, was the founding dean at the Yale School of Management, served as chairman and chief executive of the New York Stock Exchange, turnaround CEO of Aetna, chairman of the SEC, and now CEO of the private.
Published: Mon, 5 Dec Milgram Summary. In the early ’s, Yale university psychologist Stanley Milgram published” The Perils of Obedience,” in which he reported the result of a series of social psychology experiments he conducted to test the various individuals’ levels of obedience to authority.
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