Rationale[ edit ] By exploiting the peaceful uses of the "friendly atom" in medical applications, earth removal, and later in nuclear power plants, the nuclear industry and government sought to allay public fears about nuclear technology and promote the acceptance of nuclear weapons. The United States Atomic Energy Commission chairman at the time, Lewis Straussannounced that the Plowshares project was intended to "highlight the peaceful applications of nuclear explosive devices and thereby create a climate of world opinion that is more favorable to weapons development and tests". Proposed uses for nuclear explosives under Project Plowshare included widening the Panama Canalconstructing a new sea-level waterway through Nicaragua nicknamed the Pan-Atomic Canal, cutting paths through mountainous areas for highways, and connecting inland river systems. Other proposals involved blasting underground caverns for water, natural gas, and petroleum storage.
The Council imposed sanctions after Iran refused to do so. A May U. Congressional Report suggested "the United States, and later the Europeans, argued that Iran's deception meant it should forfeit its right to enrich, a position likely to be up for negotiation in talks with Iran.
In Junein the immediate wake of the disputed Iranian presidential electionIran initially agreed to a deal to relinquish its stockpile of low-enriched uranium in return for fuel for a medical research reactor, but then backed out of the deal.
A detailed analysis by physicists at the Federation of American Scientists concludes that such an estimate would depend on the total number and overall efficiency of the centrifuges Iran has in operation, and the amount of low-enriched uranium it has stockpiled to serve as "feedstock" for a possible high-enrichment program.
Congressional Research Service report quotes 24 February IAEA report saying that Iran has stockpiled pounds of percent-enriched uranium — an enrichment level necessary for medical applications — as an indication of their capacity to enrich to higher levels.
The Israeli Mossad reportedly shared this belief. EU-3 ministers and Iran's top negotiator Hassan Rouhani On 14 AugustAlireza Jafarzadeha spokesman for an Iranian dissident group National Council of Resistance of Iranpublicly revealed the existence of two nuclear sites under construction: It has been strongly suggested that intelligence agencies already knew about these facilities but the reports had been classified.
This "six months" clause was standard for implementation of all IAEA safeguards agreements untilwhen the IAEA Board of Governors decided that facilities should be reported during the planning phase, even before construction began.
Iran was the last country to accept that decision, and only did so on 26 Februaryafter the IAEA investigation began. It offered full transparency of Iran's nuclear program and withdrawal of support for Hamas and Hezbollah, in exchange for security assurances from the United States and a normalization of diplomatic relations.
The Bush Administration did not respond to the proposal, as senior U. The proposal reportedly was widely blessed by the Iranian government, including Supreme Leader Ayatollah Khamenei.
France, Germany and the United Kingdom the EU-3 undertook a diplomatic initiative with Iran to resolve questions about its nuclear program. On 21 Octoberin Tehran, the Iranian government and EU-3 Foreign Ministers issued a statement known as the Tehran Declaration  in which Iran agreed to co-operate with the IAEA, to sign and implement an Additional Protocol as a voluntary, confidence-building measure, and to suspend its enrichment and reprocessing activities during the course of the negotiations.
The EU-3 in return explicitly agreed to recognize Iran's nuclear rights and to discuss ways Iran could provide "satisfactory assurances" regarding its nuclear power program, after which Iran would gain easier access to modern technology.
Iran signed an Additional Protocol on 18 Decemberand agreed to act as if the protocol were in force, making the required reports to the IAEA and allowing the required access by IAEA inspectors, pending Iran's ratification of the Additional Protocol.
The IAEA reported 10 November that "it is clear that Iran has failed in a number of instances over an extended period of time to meet its obligations under its Safeguards Agreement with respect to the reporting of nuclear material and its processing and use, as well as the declaration of facilities where such material has been processed and stored.
It was also obligated to report to the IAEA experiments with the separation of plutonium.
However, the Islamic Republic reneged on its promise to permit the IAEA to carry out their inspections and suspended the Additional Protocol agreement outlined above in October Under the terms of the Paris Agreement,  on 14 NovemberIran's chief nuclear negotiator announced a voluntary and temporary suspension of its uranium enrichment program enrichment is not a violation of the NPT and the voluntary implementation of the Additional Protocol, after pressure from the United Kingdom, France, and Germany acting on behalf of the European Union EU, known in this context as the EU The measure was said at the time to be a voluntary, confidence-building measure, to continue for some reasonable period of time six months being mentioned as a reference as negotiations with the EU-3 continued.
On 24 November, Iran sought to amend the terms of its agreement with the EU to exclude a handful of the equipment from this deal for research work.
This request was dropped four days later. According to Seyyed Hossein Mousavian, one of the Iranian representatives to the Paris Agreement negotiations, the Iranians made it clear to their European counterparts that Iran would not consider a permanent end to uranium enrichment:Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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"Atoms for Peace" was a speech given by Dwight D. Eisenhower on December 8th, at the United Nations General Assembly. Due to the discovered dangers of the atomic bomb, Eisenhower gave this speech in order to inform the .
Parts of this article (those related to lack of information on significant changes from , culminating in Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action.) need to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information.
Ira Chernus, a professor of religious studies at the University of Colorado at Boulder, has written a short analysis of Eisenhower's "Atoms for Peace" speech before the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) on 8 December Although the “Atoms for Peace” plan was immensely popular and fundamentally altered the way the world treated nuclear energy, some contemporary observers contend that the policies and capabilities it produced inadvertently fueled the global spread of nuclear arms.
In the final analysis Eisenhower was no more or less successful than his.