Subscribe Table of contents Introduction Smoking in the midth century was ubiquitous in Australia, as in other Western countries. Inmore than three out of every four men and one in every four women were regular smokers. First was the advent of television in the late s, which brought an avalanche of advertisements for cigarettes into the lounge rooms of Australian families, 17 and distracted from concerns about cancer with images of European sophistication, American-style affluence and Australian sunshine and fun that resonated with the optimism and aspirations of a generation wanting to build a new life after two long decades of war and Depression.
Higher education[ edit ] Woman and her husband, both medical students, and their triplets in the East Germany GDR in Some countries have had state policies to encourage births among educated women. The fact that more people are going to colleges and universities, and are working to obtain more post-graduate degrees there, along with the soaring costs of education, have contributed greatly to postponing marriage in many cases, and bearing children at all, or fewer numbers of children.
And the fact that the number of women getting higher education has increased has contributed to fewer of them getting married younger, if at all. In the US, for example, females make up more than half of all college students, which is a reversal from a few decades back.
Income and fertility The growth of wealth and human development are related to sub-replacement fertility, although a sudden drop in living conditions, such as the great depressioncan also lower fertility.
Some countries, such as those that experienced violent conflicts in the s, were badly affected. Large numbers of people lost their jobs, and massive unemployment, lack of jobs outside the big cities, and economic uncertainty discourages people from having children. In recent times, residents of urban areas tend to have fewer children than people in rural areas.
Cities tend to have higher property prices, making a large family more expensive, especially in those societies where each child is now expected to have their own bedroom, rather than sharing with siblings as was the case until recently.
Rural areas also tend to be more conservative, with less contraception and abortion than urban areas. Reduction of child labour[ edit ] Child labor is common in many parts of the world Countries which have a high fertility rate are usually less developed countries, where families rely on children to help them, with labour such as agricultural work, tending to livestock, or even paid work.
In such countries child labour is quite common, with children bringing money at home, or actively supporting the family through pshysical work. By contrast, in the West, child labour is banned, and it is parents who invest very high costs into their children.
In this regard, there are major differences between European countries: Legalization and widespread acceptance of contraception in the developed world is a large factor in decreased fertility levels; however, for instance in a European context where its prevalence has always been very high in the modern era, the fertility rates do not seem to be influenced significantly by availability of contraception.
The Human Development Index HDI is a composite statistic of life expectancyeducationand per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development. A country scores higher HDI when the lifespan is higher, the education level is higher, and the GDP per capita is higher.
There is a strong inverse correlation between the HDI and the fertility rate of the population: As ofthe countries with the highest fertility rate are Burundi, Mali, Somalia, Uganda, Burkina Faso, Zambia, Malawi, Angola, and Afghanistan; while most Western countries have sub-replacement fertility rates.
The inverse relationship between income and fertility has been termed a demographic-economic " paradox " by the notion that greater means would enable the production of more offspring as suggested by the influential Thomas Malthus.
Government policies[ edit ] Some governments have launched programmes to reduce fertility rates and curb population growth.Introduction Smoking in the midth century was ubiquitous in Australia, as in other Western countries.
In , more than three out of every four men and one in every four women were regular smokers.
1 Smoking rates fell dramatically over the following two decades as many men died prematurely and others gave up smoking in response to the concerns about health that were starting to be raised. Our species' population rose to 1 billion around , and one hundred years later, it had doubled. Since then, since , the rate of increase has been phenomenal and we are now at over billion.
Dementia support As the life expectancy of people with a learning disability is increasing this is leading to an increased risk of age associated illnesses and diseases.
A guide to good practice in age management 4 5 TJEN-C The ageing of the EU population has implications for the sustainability of. Introduction Smoking in the midth century was ubiquitous in Australia, as in other Western countries.
In , more than three out of every four men and one in every four women were regular smokers. 1 Smoking rates fell dramatically over the following two decades as many men died prematurely and others gave up smoking in response to the concerns about health that were starting to be raised.
What are the consequences of an ageing population? This is a summary of a recent Radio 4 Analysis podcast – Three Score Years and Twenty on Ageing Britain.
It’s of clear relevance to the demography topic within the families and Continue reading →.